• DRUCKEN
  •  Login

    Benutzeranmeldung

    Bitte geben Sie Ihren Benutzernamen und Ihr Passwort ein, um sich an der Website anzumelden.
    Anmelden

Ampere and Elementary Charge

Ampere And Elementary Charge

Ampere And Elementary Charge

Author(s): Hansjörg Scherer

Publication: Bunsenmagazin, Issue 5 2019, Aspekte, Seiten: 184 - 191

Publisher: Deutsche Bunsen-Gesellschaft für physikalische Chemie e.V., Frankfurt

Language: English

DOI: 10.26125/4fk1-ee09

Introduction

This article reviews the latest history of the electrical base units of current, the ampere, together with topical developments in the field of modern electrical quantum metrology, including discussion on the consequences of the revision of the International System of Units (Système International d’Unités, SI), which is taking effect in May 2019. One of the main advances of the SI revision for electrical metrology is that the new definition of the ampere decouples the unit from the definition of the unit of mass, formerly being based on an artefact representing the kilogram, which was shown to be instable. Furthermore, the revision solves a dilemma with the realization of the electrical units via quantum electrical effects, which was inherent to the SI since 1990. With the new ampere definition, there is now the possibility of a direct ampere realization by using single-electron transport devices as quantum current sources.

Cite this: Scherer, Hansjörg (2019): Ampere And Elementary Charge. Bunsenmagazin 2019, 5: 184-191. Frankfurt am Main: Deutsche Bunsen-Gesellschaft für physikalische Chemie e.V. Opens internal link in current windowDOI: 10.26125/4fk1-ee09 

References

[1 ] Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), SI brochure: The International System of Units, Section 2.1.1.4, 8th edition (2006; updated in 2014). Online: https://www.bipm.org/en/publications/si-brochure/ampere.html
[2] R. E. Elmquist, E. Marvin, Y. Tang, J. R. Kinard, R. F. Dziuba, M. Nile, and E. R. Williams, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 65 (2001).
[3] M. Gläser, PTB-Mitteilungen 126, 79 (2016).
[4] P. Vigoureux, Metrologia 1, 3 (1964).
[5] R. Davis, Metrologia 40, 299 (2003).
[6] Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), SI brochure: The International System of Units, Appendix 2, 8th edition (2006; updated in 2014). Online: http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/mises-en-pratique/electrical-units.html
[7] A. Jeffery, R. E. Elmquist, J. Q. Shields, L. H. Lee, M. E. Cage, S. H. Shields, and R. F. Dziuba, Metrologia 35, 83 (1998).
[8] W. K. Clothier, G. J. Sloggett, H. Bairnsfather, M. F. Currey, and D. J. Benjamin, Metrologia 26, 9 (1989).
[9] T. Funck and V. Sienknecht, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 158 (1991).
[10] B. D. Josephson, Phys. Lett. 1, 251 (1962).
[11] S. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 80 (1963).
[12] J. Kohlmann, R. Behr, and T. Funck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1216 (2003).
[13] O. F. Kieler, R. Behr, R. Wendisch, S. Bauer, L. Palafox, and J. Kohlmann, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 25, 1400305 (2015).
[14] J. Kohlmann and O. Kieler, PTB-Mitteilungen 126, 7 (2016).
[15] K. v. Klitzing, G. Dorda, and M. Pepper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 494 (1980).
[16] B. Jeckelmann and B. Jeanneret, Reports Prog. Phys. 64, 1603 (2001).
[17] M. Kruskopf and R. E. Elmquist, Metrologia 55, R27 (2018).
[18] C.-Z. Chang, J. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Shen, Z. Zhang, M. Guo, K. Li, Y. Ou, P. Wei, L.-L. Wang, J. Zhong-Qing, F. Yang, J. Shuaihua, C. Xi, J. Jinfeng, D. Xi, F. Zhong, Z. Shou-Cheng, H. Ke, W. Yayu, L. Li, M. Xu-Cun, X. Qi-Kun., Science 340, 167 (2013).
[19] M. Götz, K. M. Fijalkowski, E. Pesel, M. Hartl, S. Schreyeck, M. Winnerlein, H. Scherer, K. Brunner, C. Gould, F. J. Ahlers, L. W. Molenkamp, K. M. Fijalkowski, E. Pesel, M. Hartl, G. Martin, K. Brunner, C. Gould, F. J. Ahlers, and L. W. Molenkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 072102 (2018).
[20] CIPM, Recommendation 1 “Representation of the volt by means of the Josephson effect” 1988. Online: https://www.bipm.org/en/CIPM/db/1988/1/
[21] CIPM, Recommendation 2 “Representation of the ohm by means of the quantum Hall effect” (1988). Online: https://www.bipm.org/en/CIPM/db/1988/2/
[22] P. J. Mohr, D. B. Newell, and B. N. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035009 (2016).
[23] CGPM, Resolution 1 of the 26th CGPM “On the revision of the International System of units (SI)” (2018). Online: https://www. bipm.org/en/CGPM/db/26/1/
[24] P. J. Mohr, D. B. Newell, B. N. Taylor, and E. Tiesinga, Metrologia 55, 125 (2018).
[25] D. B. Newell, F. Cabiati, J. Fischer, K. Fujii, S. G. Karshenboim, H. S. Margolis, E. de Mirandés, P. J. Mohr, F. Nez, K. Pachucki, T. J. Quinn, B. N. Taylor, M. Wang, B. M. Wood, and Z. Zhang, Metrologia 55, L13 (2018).
[26] B. Jeanneret and S. P. Benz, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 172, 181 (2009).
[27] W. Poirier and F. Schopfer, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 172, 207 (2009).
[28] I. K. Harvey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1626 (1972).
[29] J. C. Gallop and F. Piquemal, in “The SQUID Handbook”, Vol. II, Applications of SQUIDS and SQUID systems, edited by J. Clarke, A.I. Braginski, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).
[30] M. Götz, D. Drung, E. Pesel, H. J. Barthelmess, C. Hinnrichs, C. Abmann, M. Peters, H. Scherer, B. Schumacher, and T. Schurig, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1176 (2009).
[31] D. Drung, M. Götz, E. Pesel, and H. Scherer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 64, 3021 (2015).
[32] N. E. Fletcher, J. M. Williams, and T. J. B. M. Janssen, in “Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2000” Digest, IEEE, 482 (2000).
[33] J. Schurr, V. Bürkel, and B. P. Kibble, Metrologia 46, 619 (2009).
[34] J. Schurr, F. Ahlers, and B. P. Kibble, Meas. Sci. Instrum. 23, 124009 (2012).
[35] A. M. Thompson and D. G. Lampard, Nature 177, 888 (1956).
[36] J. Lee, R. Behr, B. Schumacher, L. Palafox, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, A. C. Böck, and P. M. Fleischmann, in “Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2016” Digest, IEEE, (2016).
[37] M. Starkloff, M. Bauer, M. Schubert, J. Lee, R. Behr, L. Palafox, L. Schaidhammer, A. C. Böck, P. M. Fleischmann, in “Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2018” Digest, IEEE, (2018).
[38] J. Brun-Picard, S. Djordjevic, D. Leprat, F. Schopfer, and W. Poirier, Phys. Rev X 6, 41051 (2016).
[39] S. Djordjevic, J. Azib, J. Brun-Picard, F. Schopfer, and W. Poirier, in “Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2018” Digest, IEEE, (2018).
[40] J. P. Pekola, O.-P. Saira, V. F. Maisi, A. Kemppinen, M. Möttönen, Y. A. Pashkin, and D. V. Averin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 1421 (2013).
[41] B. Kaestner and V. Kashcheyevs, Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 103901 (2015).
[42] S. P. Giblin, D. Drung, M. Götz, and H. Scherer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2019). Online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8612942
[43] D. Drung, C. Krause, U. Becker, H. Scherer, and F. J. Ahlers, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 024703 (2015).
[44] F. Stein, H. Scherer, T. Gerster, R. Behr, M. Götz, E. Pesel, C. Leicht, N. Ubbelohde, T. Weimann, K. Pierz, H. W. Schumacher, and F. Hohls, Metrologia 54, S1 (2016).
[45] H. Scherer, D. Drung, C. Krause, M. Götz, and U. Becker, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2019).
[46] BIPM, “The International System of Units (SI)- Draft of the ninth SI Brochure” (2019). Online: https://www.bipm.org/utils/en/pdf/si-revised-brochure/Draft-SI-Brochure-2019.pdf
[47] H. Scherer and H. W. Schumacher, Ann. Phys., 1800371 (2019). Online: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/andp.201800371
[48] CCEM, “Mise en pratique for the defi nition of the ampere and other electric units in the SI,” Draft for Appendix 2 of the SI Brochure for the “Revised SI”, Version 1.0 (2017). Online: https://www.bipm.org/utils/en/pdf/si-mep/MeP-a-2018.pdf
[49] G. D. Willenberg, H. N. Tauscher, and P. Warnecke, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 436 (2003).
[50] G. D. Willenberg, Metrologia 50, technical supplement, 01002 (2013).
[51] S. P. Giblin, G.-D. Willenberg, and N. E. Fletcher, in “Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2010” Digest, IEEE, 318 (2010).
[52] H. Scherer and B. Camarota, Meas. Sci. Technol. 23, 124010 (2012).

REFERENCES

[1 ] Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), SI brochure:

The International System of Units, Section 2.1.1.4, 8th edition

(2006; updated in 2014). Online: www.bipm.org/en/

publications/si-brochure/ampere.html

[2] R. E. Elmquist, E. Marvin, Y. Tang, J. R. Kinard, R. F. Dziuba, M.

Nile, and E. R. Williams, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106,

65 (2001).

[3] M. Gläser, PTB-Mitteilungen 126, 79 (2016).

[4] P. Vigoureux, Metrologia 1, 3 (1964).

[5] R. Davis, Metrologia 40, 299 (2003).

[6] Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), SI brochure:

The International System of Units, Appendix 2, 8th edition

(2006; updated in 2014). Online: www.bipm.org/en/

publications/mises-en-pratique/electrical-units.html

[7] A. Jeffery, R. E. Elmquist, J. Q. Shields, L. H. Lee, M. E. Cage, S.

H. Shields, and R. F. Dziuba, Metrologia 35, 83 (1998).

[8] W. K. Clothier, G. J. Sloggett, H. Bairnsfather, M. F. Currey, and

D. J. Benjamin, Metrologia 26, 9 (1989).

[9] T. Funck and V. Sienknecht, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 158

(1991).

[10] B. D. Josephson, Phys. Lett. 1, 251 (1962).

[11] S. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 80 (1963).

[12] J. Kohlmann, R. Behr, and T. Funck, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14,

1216 (2003).

[13] O. F. Kieler, R. Behr, R. Wendisch, S. Bauer, L. Palafox, and J.

Kohlmann, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 25, 1400305 (2015).

[14] J. Kohlmann and O. Kieler, PTB-Mitteilungen 126, 7 (2016).

[15] K. v. Klitzing, G. Dorda, and M. Pepper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 494

(1980).

[16] B. Jeckelmann and B. Jeanneret, Reports Prog. Phys. 64, 1603

(2001).

[17] M. Kruskopf and R. E. Elmquist, Metrologia 55, R27 (2018).

[18] C.-Z. Chang, J. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Shen, Z. Zhang, M. Guo, K. Li,

Y. Ou, P. Wei, L.-L. Wang, J. Zhong-Qing, F. Yang, J. Shuaihua, C.

Xi, J. Jinfeng, D. Xi, F. Zhong, Z. Shou-Cheng, H. Ke, W. Yayu, L.

Li, M. Xu-Cun, X. Qi-Kun., Science 340, 167 (2013).

[19] M. Götz, K. M. Fijalkowski, E. Pesel, M. Hartl, S. Schreyeck, M.

Winnerlein, H. Scherer, K. Brunner, C. Gould, F. J. Ahlers, L. W.

Molenkamp, K. M. Fijalkowski, E. Pesel, M. Hartl, G. Martin,

K. Brunner, C. Gould, F. J. Ahlers, and L. W. Molenkamp, Appl.

Phys. Lett. 112, 072102 (2018).

[20] CIPM, Recommendation 1 “Representation of the volt by means

of the Josephson effect” 1988. Online: www.bipm.org

en/CIPM/db/1988/1/

[21] CIPM, Recommendation 2 “Representation of the ohm by

means of the quantum Hall effect” (1988). Online: https://

www.bipm.org/en/CIPM/db/1988/2/

[22] P. J. Mohr, D. B. Newell, and B. N. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 88,

035009 (2016).

[23] CGPM, Resolution 1 of the 26th CGPM “On the revision of the

International System of units (SI)” (2018). Online: www.

bipm.org/en/CGPM/db/26/1/

[24] P. J. Mohr, D. B. Newell, B. N. Taylor, and E. Tiesinga, Metrologia

55, 125 (2018).

[25] D. B. Newell, F. Cabiati, J. Fischer, K. Fujii, S. G. Karshenboim,

H. S. Margolis, E. de Mirandés, P. J. Mohr, F. Nez, K. Pachucki,

T. J. Quinn, B. N. Taylor, M. Wang, B. M. Wood, and Z. Zhang,

Metrologia 55, L13 (2018).

[26] B. Jeanneret and S. P. Benz, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 172, 181

(2009).

[27] W. Poirier and F. Schopfer, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 172, 207

(2009).

[28] I. K. Harvey, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1626 (1972).

[29] J. C. Gallop and F. Piquemal, in “The SQUID Handbook”, Vol. II,

Applications of SQUIDS and SQUID systems, edited by J. Clarke,

A.I. Braginski, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[30] M. Götz, D. Drung, E. Pesel, H. J. Barthelmess, C. Hinnrichs, C.

Abmann, M. Peters, H. Scherer, B. Schumacher, and T. Schurig,

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58, 1176 (2009).

[31] D. Drung, M. Götz, E. Pesel, and H. Scherer, IEEE Trans. Instrum.

Meas. 64, 3021 (2015).

[32] N. E. Fletcher, J. M. Williams, and T. J. B. M. Janssen, in “Conference

on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2000”

Digest, IEEE, 482 (2000).

[33] J. Schurr, V. Bürkel, and B. P. Kibble, Metrologia 46, 619

(2009).

[34] J. Schurr, F. Ahlers, and B. P. Kibble, Meas. Sci. Instrum. 23,

124009 (2012).